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What is Kilim?

The cultural symbol of the country in handicrafts can be measured by various indicators, but usually a product will represent this cultural and artistic strength in the world.

Handmade carpets and kilims are a symbol that has been a symbol of Iran and Iranians since ancient times, and this popularity has been accepted internationally by accepting Iranian carpets as the most beautiful and highest quality in this field of handicrafts.

Iranian handmade carpets with a unique design and relying on the tradition of visual and sometimes ethnic and national designs reached their peak in the 17th century, and this is still the case with Iranian handmade carpets such as kilims, zillows, carpets and rugs. Has made it one of the most popular handicrafts in the world.

kilim is a flat tapestry-woven carpet or rug traditionally produced in countries of the former Persian Empire, including Iran, Azerbaijan, the Balkans and the Turkic countries of Central Asia. Kilims can be purely decorative or can function as prayer rugs. Modern kilims are popular floor coverings in Western households.


A hand-woven kilim is made of warp (cotton or wool) and weft (wool), which is usually woven from the wool of domesticated animals, each area has its own design and is generally used as a rug.

The texture of the kilim may have other uses than the carpet among the nomads with modifications: including salt shakers, horseshoes, tent strips.

It can be said that in Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North Africa, wherever goats, sheep and camels were raised and its people specialized in carpet weaving, kilims were also woven. The Turkmen, Caucasian, Turkish, Arab and… hand-woven peoples produced and used kilims.


What is a persian  handmade kilim rug?

Handmade kilim carpet flooring is less known .. This handmade flooring is a beautiful product .. To know the kilim carpet, we must first say the differences between carpet and kilim, and then we will go to the kilim carpet ..


First, let’s look at the differences between carpets and kilims:

Kilim is a kind of hand-woven fabric and product .. Kilim is used as a floor like carpet or rug ..

with the difference that kilim does not have lint and long knots .. Kilims are woven from cotton or fleece .. Since kilim is Areas that are engaged in animal husbandry are usually made of wool.

The quality of the kilim depends on the thinness of the yarn. The thinner the yarn, the higher the quality. Therefore, the kilims that are woven from merino wool or fluff are of high quality have..

Since the kilim does not have pile and long knots, it is also less expensive than carpets. .. The lightness and comfort of the kilim has caused it to have many uses among the nomads ..

Products such as salt shakers, horse hoofs (hooves for horses are like clothes for human beings ..), tent strips (means of decorating nomadic tents), tablecloths Nomadic use) and… is produced by kilim weaving technique ..


Carpet or rug is a kind of handmade spread .. This product, in addition to warp and weft, also has knots and lint .. each of which can be of the material: wool, fluff, cotton and silk .. Since the carpet is knotted and long lint Yes, it is more prominent than the kilim ..

but the carpet is heavier and more complex than the kilim .. This makes it more difficult for nomads to carry than the kilim .. therefore the carpet is used only as a floor ..


What is a kilim rug?

Now according to the definitions provided, you can probably guess what a “handmade kilim rug” is. This product is a combination of rugs and kilims. There are related parts to the design. Other parts, such as the kilim, are woven only from weaving the warp and weft.

The other difference is in the map. kilim carpet, like Gabbeh, does not have a predetermined design .. The design of this product is mentally handmade ..


Carpets may have found a traditional function today .. But handmade kilim carpets are products that are used as a modern flooring .. Another advantage of this product is its price .. This handmade product is much more suitable and cheaper than carpets. At the same time, its quality and originality are the same as a handmade carpet.



Types of kilims

Iranian kilims can be divided into three groups:

  1. Flat or Double Kilim

۲. Sumak Kilim

  1. Special kilims or single but non-sumac kilims




Simple or double or flat kilims:

Plain or double or flat kilims that are woven using weaving method. It is less thick compared to other types of kilims. The drawings on both sides of the kilim are the same and finally its two sides (back and front) can be used. Qashqai kilims, Saneh and Bijar kilims in Kurdistan and Musnad and simple kilims in Ardabil, Semnan, Zanjan kilims, etc. are in this group. This type of kilim has only warp and weft.

One-sided kilims or somak:

Sumak is said to be named after the city of Shamakhia in the Caucasus, where delicate floral kilims have been woven for centuries. Sumac weaving is mostly done with screw weave weaving. The finest Sumac kilims come from the Caucasus and have been produced in Iran and Turkey since the 20th century. The weaving of one-piece or sumac kilims is done by screw weaving method  and pitch twist weaving.

These kilims are thicker than simple and ordinary kilims and have a twisted fabric and a thin fabric. The torsional fabric plays a role in moving and rotating around the yarns of the warp or weft, and by passing another weft, it is done all over the weft yarn, and finally by tapping it with the help of a comb, daffodil, daftin, and so on. The weaving takes place and goes to the back of the kilim and remains hidden due to the addition of torsional fabric. A kilim is thicker than a regular kilim but one-sided appears because the designs and patterns can be seen on the kilim. And behind it, only the colored threads are scattered and irregular.


The first producers and users of simple kilims and somaks were nomads, who emerged centuries after the weaving of simple kilims and the feeling of the need for a thicker and more complete undergarment than somaks. Therefore, researchers believe that Sumac can be considered as an intermediate link between kilim and carpet in the history of carpet weaving and in the evolutionary path of kilim to carpet, due to the characteristics of texture, variety of raw materials and more complete patterns.


“Verni” which is woven in Ardabil and East Azarbaijan provinces, “Shirki Pich” which is woven in Kerman province, “Randi” which is woven in Fars and Khuzestan provinces and … are in this group.


Sumacs can be divided into three groups:

  1. The first group includes sumacs of East Azarbaijan and Ardabil nomads in Iran, which are called varnishes. The text of these varnishes is mainly covered with small and simplified animal motifs along with a simple geometric motif.
  2. 2. The second group includes the Sumac of the Republic of Azerbaijan. These weaves are usually covered with large animal motifs. These motifs, unlike the simple and abstract animals of Iranian varnishes, show more and more complete details of the animals.
  3. The third group consists of Turkish-made sumacs. The surface of these sumacs is completely covered with geometric patterns, and animals are rarely used in it.


Single but non-sumac kilims

In weaving this type of kilims, simple kilim weaving methods (weaving), somak kilim weaving (screw weaving) and even in some cases, in some cases, carpet weaving method (full knot) are used.


The embossed flower kilims of Ilam, Gochmeh in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad provinces, Shurki which is woven in Khorasan province and about 50 km from Mashhad city, Rezaabad Khartouran kilim which is woven about 320 km in Shahroud, Kurdish tablecloth kilim of Khorasan and … are in this category Takes.